Osteoporosis is a condition that rarely occurs during pregnancy, but due to loss of bone density, bones become fragile and may suffer fractures. During pregnancy, the aetiology of osteoporosis is unknown. But there are a large number of identifiable risk factors that can influence the development of osteoporosis. Generally, symptoms and signs most often begin in the third trimester of the first pregnancy and improve after delivery, as they do not usually recur in subsequent pregnancies. To diagnose osteoporosis, as well as to determine the risk of fractures and follow-up medication are used bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and determination of the level of the final products (biomarkers), which are released during bone degradation and formation. The dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the leading technique for estimating bone mineral density. So far there is no specific treatment for osteoporosis during pregnancy. In many cases, the adverse effects of osteoporosis are reversible with appropriate and timely intervention. Therefore, treatment with calcium and vitamin D supplements during pregnancy in women who have two or more risk factors for developing osteoporosis may be reasonable.