gynecology and obstetrics medical project, gynecology journal, obstetrics, gynecologic oncology, reproductive medicine, gynecological endoscopy, ultrasonography, gynecology articles

Ginekologia i Poloznictwo
ISSN 1896-3315 e-ISSN 1898-0759

The influence of the menstrual cycle on anterior cruciate ligament injury


Author(s): Michalik Piotr (AB), Michalski Tomasz (ABE), Król Tomasz (BF), Dąbrowska-Galas Magdalena (BF), Rutkowska Magdalena (ED), Czajkowska Mariola (ED), Urban Krzysztof (BE)

Knee joint injury is one of the most common injuries in the human musculoskeletal system. The risk is higher in women, usually during training. It is currently believed that, apart from visible anatomical differences, menstrual cycle phases seem to play a role in this increased incidence of trauma. Studies on joint stability reveal that gender determines the activation of different knee joint stabilization strategies, particularly with respect to the quadriceps femoris and hamstrings. The anterior cruciate ligament contains estradiol and progesterone receptors, which means that it changes its parameters during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle affect the responsiveness of the nervous system and cause changes in neuromuscular control of the knee joint. Estrogen level fluctuations contribute to the risk of injury within the knee. The risk is lower in women who use hormonal contraception. The aim of this study was to present and analyze the available literature in order to evaluate the risk of knee joint injury during the menstrual cycle.