Author(s): Patrycja Krawczyk1 (ABDEF), Urszula Sioma-Markowska1 (DE), Agnieszka Nowak-BrzeziÅska2 (C),Violetta Skrzypulec-Plinta3 (AE), Edyta Kubiak1 (B)
Introduction. Early dietary exposure of pregnant womenbecomes the main determinant of normal fetal developmentand shapes health of future generations. A range of scientificevidence indicates that nutrition in pregnancy can modifygene expression and result in susceptibility to various diseases.The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship betwe-en eating habits of pregnant women and daily delivery ofnutrients as well as their influence on the postnatal conditionof the neonate.Materials and methods. The study enrolled 178 healthy pre-gnant women aged 19–38 years (mean age 29.9 years) at 1–4 days post-labor hospitalized in maternity units of hospitalsin the Silesian Province of Poland. The study was conductedusing a standardized questionnaire of the National HealthInstitute: Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ II) and a proprie-tary history questionnaire.Results. The mean energy value in daily dietary allowanceduring pregnancy was 2,609.87±1,199.86 kcal per day.Considering total fat intake in grams, it was concluded thatthe mean fat intake level was 90.87±42.98 g (103.4% of therecommended intake), which falls within the referential va-lues for the pregnant (46–90 g + 13–16 g). Carbohydrateintake was nearly twice higher than the recommended intake(244.4%). Women having neonates with normal birth weight(2,500–4,000 g) had meals with a lower energy, protein, fat,carbohydrate and cholesterol content than mothers havingneonates with macrosomia. A statistically significant correla-tion found in the study was a negative correlation betweenthe Apgar score and alcohol consumption during pregnancy.The estimated quantities of individual groups of food productsdid not conform to the recommended dietary reference inta-ke models for pregnant women. Of the studied women, nonefollowed a vegetarian diet or excluded meat, fish, eggs anddairy products from the diet.Conclusions. Eating habits of pregnant women negativelyaffect the structure of daily intake of selected nutrients, energycontent and contribution of the individual groups of productsto the total diet. The mean intake of fruit and added sugarsin the daily diet of pregnant women considerably exceeds therecommended reference intake for the pregnant. There is nocorrelation between omega-3 fatty acid intake and neonatalbirth weight.