Author(s): JOANNA SZYMKOWIAK, LIDIA HIRNLE
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathy among women in the reproductive age. Features of PCOS are : elevated level of male hormones (hyperandrogenism ), oligoovulation or anovulation and the characteristic appearance of ovaries in ultrasound examination. PCOS can be diagnosed after elimination of other syndromes with hyperandrogenism. PCOS is also related with higher than in general population risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type II, cardiovascular diseases and endometrial carcinoma. This disease may also lead to appear some complications during pregnancy mainly to miscarriages, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. Ultrasound examination is the most widely used method for evaluation of the ovarian morphology in case of patients with manifestations of PCOS. The most often evaluated parameters during ultrasound examination of ovary are the volume of ovary and the number of follicles inside the ovary. The three-dimensional ultrasonography enables greater accuracy of the measurement than the standard two dimensional method. It is highly probable that the new computer programmes for calculating like VOCAL or Sono AVC will be very useful for the measurement of the volume of whole ovary, stroma of ovary and follicles. Therapy of PCOS differs depending on the result the patient and physician want to achieve – ovulatory cycles and pregnancy or just reduction of the symptoms. Methods of treatment are reduction of the body weight, therapy with estrogen-progesterone, metformine, clomiphene citrate and surgical treatment mainly laparoscopic.