Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major global public health issue, with prevalence increasing in recent years due to the epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Aim of the Work: to compare different neonatal outcomes according to the different treatment modalities used in the management of GDM. Our hypothesis was that Metformin is as effective and safe as insulin in patients with gestational diabetes.
Patients and Methods: The current non inferiority-Randomized controlled trial was conducted at Ain Shams Maternity hospital between June 2020 to February 2021. The study included 140 outpatient cases or admitted patients for antenatal care: Group A: women were given Metformin (Total 70) and Group B: Women were given insulin. (Total 70).
Results: there was no significant difference between Metformin and Insulin groups regarding age, enrolment BMI, parity and family history of DM. There was no significant difference between Metformin and Insulin groups regarding gestational age at enrolment and delivery as well as pregnancy duration after intervention. BMI at delivery, BMI increase as well as BMI increase rate were significantly lower in Metformin group. There were no significant differences between Metformin and Insulin groups regarding fasting, two-hour postprandial and HbA1c blood glucose at enrollment and throughout treatment as well as their reduction after intervention. Maternal complications as hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and preeclampsia were non-significantly less frequent among Metformin group than among Insulin group. Compliance to treatment was significantly more frequent among Metformin group than among Insulin group. Cesarean delivery was non-significantly less frequent among Metformin group than among Insulin group. There was no significant difference between Metformin and Insulin regarding birth weight APGAR-1, but APGAR-5 was significantly higher in Metformin group. Neonatal complications as IUFD, IUGR, macrosomia, congenital anomalies, neonatal hypoglycemia, respiratory distress and NICU admission were non-significantly less frequent among Metformin group.
Conclusions: From the results of current study we can conclude that: Oral metformin was effective as insulin injection in control and management of GDM. BMI was controlled with oral metformin better than insulin injection. Maternal and neonatal complications specially birth weight were the same with both types of treatment. Women had better compliance to metformin treatment. Type of delivery wasn’t affected by type of treatment.